Contents tagged with Learning

  • Microsoft Increases Exam Pricing

    Posted by spy on April 27 2011, 4:44 AM. Posted in Learning.

    Effective July 1, 2011, the retail price of Microsoft Certifications will increase worldwide.* This change reflects the significant value that our certifications provide to our customers and our continual investment in new and enhanced Microsoft Certifications and other program improvements.

    Continue At Source


  • Everything you need to know about DHCP as a Systems Administrator

    Posted by Netanel Ben-Shushan on February 23 2010, 1:36 AM. Posted in Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2003, Windows Fundamentals, Learning.



    This article will help you to learn everything that you need to know as a systems administrator (or SysAdmin) about this protocol and what can you do with him.


    What's DHCP? And why it's recommended to use it?

    Imagine that you're working as a SysAdmin for a large company with 500 desktop computers; you need to set to each desktop computer IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, DNS servers, and other network settings. How could you do that?

    If you'll try to perform this task manually you're probably going to waste a lot of time on sitting on each computer 5-10 minutes, beside time, you can for example accidently enter wrong IP address to few clients, or to type the same IP address to few clients too.

    In order to solve these "problems" you can use Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (or DHCP) in your network.

    DHCP allows you manage the networks' IP addresses scopes and other TCP/IP settings like DNS, Default Gateway, etc. from central place, this central place called DHCP server. Beside the management, if there's any problem you don't need to run between your clients, you just need to connect to your server and to check the DHCP settings, as I mentioned – the DHCP works from central place, so if there's a problem, it's probably from the server, so you know where to go in case of problem and your saving time.

    The DHCP server can provide easily IP addresses to clients automatically so you don't even need to configure and set options in the client side, all you need is to setup DHCP server, configure scope options and some other TCP/IP settings in the server side and that's it. You can provide to your clients IP addresses from the selected range that you've configured and some other TCP/IP options.

    Note: DHCP in my opinion can called "The next generation of BOOTP", because the BOOTP came first before the DHCP, and today we're using BOOTP in order to deploy operating systems by booting from the network. Beside this, DHCP was developed in order to support in large networks – something that BOOTP can't provide.


    How DHCP works?

    Without entering to the related technical information (DORA process) the DHCP client request from the DHCP server IP address for a while, the length of time that the DHCP client can use the dynamic IP address that the DHCP server provided can be called lease, just like the name: lease means that the client "rent" an IP address for a specific time from the DHCP server, if the client want to continue using the specific IP address the client needs to re-assign the address by renew the lease, this will happen before the expiration time of the lease if the client is still in the network.

    More in depth, the DHCP service works by using the DORA (Discover, Offer, Request and Acknowledgment) process (you can trace on the whole process using a network monitor utility):

    1. DHCPDISCOVER – The client broadcast a DHCPDISCOVER packet in order to locate a DHCP server in the network, in some cases that the DHCP server isn't in the same subnet of the client, you'll need to configure in your network devices (usually routers) a DHCP Relay Agent, in order to transfer the DHCPDISCOVER packet to the DHCP server.

    2. DHCPOFFER – The DHCP server broadcast a DHCPOFFER packet to the client which includes an offer to use a unique IP address for the client.

    3. DHCPREQUEST – The client broadcast a DHCPREQUEST packet to the DHCP server with an answer, and "asks" from the server to "rent" the unique address that the server offer to her.

    4. DHCPACK – The DHCP server broadcast a DHCPACK packet to the client, in this packet the server acknowledge the request from the client to use the IP address, and provide to the client the IP address lease and other details such as DNS servers, default gateway, etc. if the server cannot provide the requested IP address or from some reasons the address is not valid the server sends DHCPNACK packet in stand of DHCPACK, more information about DHCPNACK is under the specific subject – DHCPNACK.



    Note: DHCP service uses port 67/UDP in the DHCP server, and 68/UDP at the DHCP clients.


    It's recommended to check that your firewall doesn't block these ports in order to able the DHCP server and clients to communicate, and also check that your network devices supports DHCP Relay Agent in case that some of your clients are in different physical subnet.

    In some cases you'll notice another DHCP messages like these:

    1. DHCPDECLINE – If the client recognizes that the IP address that the DHCP server offer to her in use, the client will generate a new request to another IP address (in the DHCPREQUEST step).

    2. DHCPRELEASE – This message is commonly in use when the client "give up" and release IP address.

    3. DHCPRENEW – This is the request packet to renew and continue "renting" the IP address lease.

    4. DHCPINFORM – The DHCPINFORM is packet that the client send to the DHCP server in order to get more details from the server, for example DHCPINFORM can be send in order to locate another DHCP servers in the network.



    The DHCPNACK or Negative Acknowledgment is a packet that the server sends if the IP address is not available in stand of DHCPACK (in use on other client for example) or the address is no longer valid. In case of DHCPNACK the client must restart the lease process in order to get an IP address.


    DHCP Scopes, Exclude and Reservation

    DHCP Scope is a range of IP addresses that you configure in your DHCP server as range of addresses that designed for distribution to the clients.

    For example, if you set a scope with a range from, you can easily provide only from this range IP addresses to your clients.

    You can also create more than one scope, but it's recommended to check that your scopes aren't duplicating one with each other's. At the scope creation process you can add some more TCP/IP parameters such as subnet mask, IP addresses lease time, router (default gateway), DNS servers, etc. so when the clients gets the IP addresses they'll get also the other parameters from the scope.

    In some cases, you'll need to prevent the client using some addresses, for example if your scope is from up to, and your servers using, you can exclude these IP addresses from the scope and exclude the DHCP to distribute them to the clients, in most of the DHCP servers this option called exclude.

    Reservation is a great option if you're planning to provide specific dynamic IP address from the DHCP server to unique DHCP client. If for example in the scope you want to provide for specific client a unique address that will be always of the client, you can easily set reservation for the client using a unique identifier – the MAC address, the MAC of Media Access Control is a unique hexadecimal physical address for network adapters.


    DHCP & DNS

    When you're installing DHCP server you can configure the DHCP server to set DNS updates to any DNS server that support dynamic updates. More information about the combination between DHCP and DNS you can find right here.


    Active Directory & DHCP Servers

    In Microsoft Windows Server with Active Directory you need to authorize your server in order to work with the DHCP service.

    In the past you could install few DHCP servers – as you wish, this action occurs problems like server crashing, etc.

    In the new Windows 2000 Server/Server 2003/2008 you must authorize your server in order to start the DHCP server, if there's an authorized DHCP server in the Active Directory environment and a non-authorized server trying to start the DHCP service in order to distribute IP address, the server will failed in this task and the DHCP service in the local computer will stop.


    DHCP Relay Agent

    DHCP Relay Agent is any kind of host (usually a router or server) that listen to DHCP/BOOTP broadcast from clients on subnets without local DHCP servers.

    The DHCP Relay Agent forwards the packets from the clients and the DHCP server that sitting on different physical subnets to each other in order to supply 'connection' between the DHCP Server to the clients, and opposite (from the clients to the server).



    In conclusion

    Using DHCP service can easily help you as a System/Network Administrator to manage you clients by assigning, tracking and re-assigning IP addresses.


    About the author

    Netanel Ben-Shushan is an IT Consultant & Trainer from Israel, who works mainly with Microsoft, networking and information security systems. He's the creator of, a personal website in Hebrew with technical guides and articles. Beside he's website, Netanel is also writing a Hebrew weblog at Microsoft Israel's blogging community.

  • I'm MCITP Enterprise Administrator!

    Posted by bink on December 31 2008, 9:39 PM. Posted in Learning.

    Wow in a record time I managed to get my certification up to speed. I never did an upgrade exam from Windows 2000 to 2003, so for Windows 2008 I had to start over and do 5 exams. I had 5 days, so that was 1 exam per day (christmas in between). Today I had the final exam and passed it [:D] 




  • New Master-Level Cert - Climbing the Ladder of Success with Microsoft Certification

    Posted by sumeethevans on June 11 2008, 9:51 PM. Posted in Learning.

    Despite the current air of global economic uncertainty, demand for trained and certified IT professionals is expected to continue apace over the next several years. Research firm IDC forecasts that demand for technology training and education programs will increase by 5.4 percent between 2007 and 2012, with the Americas leading the way with 6.6 percent growth over the forecast period. According to IDC, this demand for training is fueled, in part, by the perpetual advance of technology and continued shortage of skilled workers.*

    In response to this acute need, Jim Clark, senior product planner, and Per Farny, director of advanced training and certification, will be at Microsoft Tech-Ed 2008 in Orlando, Fla., this week to unveil two new training and certification programs from Microsoft Learning. Scheduled to begin later this year, the programs are designed to prime the pipeline of skilled workers and help companies maximize their technology investments.

    Synchronizing Certification with the Customers’ Needs

    Technical certification is critical to ensuring developers and IT professionals stay up to date on the latest innovations in their field and what these new technologies can do for their customers. A prime example of a cutting-edge technology with tremendous potential to cut costs and increase efficiency is virtualization. Another study by IDC projects that the market for virtualization services will reach nearly $12 billion by 2011.** Correspondingly, virtualization is currently one of the most highly sought after areas of expertise, with skilled developers and IT professionals in high demand.

    Yet the true benefits that companies can expect from virtualization, and the scenarios in which it will be most beneficial, remain unclear, Clark notes. To help IT pros develop a baseline of understanding about virtualization and the spectrum of technologies it encompasses, Microsoft Learning has created a series of training and Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist (MCTS) certification programs that focus on Hyper-V and the forthcoming Windows Server Virtual Machine Manager, both of which are part of Microsoft’s virtualization strategy.

    Continue At Source

  • Training Aims to Help IT Pros Become Heroes

    Posted by sumeethevans on February 25 2008, 9:18 PM. Posted in Learning.

    The challenges that IT professionals face have never been more complex: new waves of technology innovation that need to be implemented and maintained, an increasingly mobile workforce, new communication and collaboration technologies, security threats, concerns about energy consumption – the list goes on and on. As Microsoft drives towards the biggest enterprise product launch in its history later this month, it is helping make the transition to using these new products easier by offering a variety of training and certifications for these often unsung heroes.

    PressPass spoke with Lutz Ziob, general manager of Microsoft Learning, about the importance of readiness for new technology, and how innovations in training will help IT pros in the future.

    PressPass: How does training and certification for Windows Server 2008 benefit IT pros?

    Ziob: The short answer is that earning a certification helps IT professionals be recognized for their deep technical knowledge. Every era has its unsung heroes. In the last century, it was the men and women who designed and built the physical infrastructures that fueled much of that era’s social and economic progress. In the information age, our unsung heroes are the millions of IT professionals and developers who work behind the scenes to build and support the information systems that drive our global economy.

    PressPass: Beyond recognition, how else is training designed to help IT pros when new products like these come to market?

    Ziob: With the launch of Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Microsoft Visual Studio 2008 and Microsoft SQL Server 2008, we are delivering powerful new tools that can transform the way IT professionals and developers build and support IT systems. The more knowledge you have of our software, the better equipped you are to exploit its full capabilities. That gives credentialed professionals a real competitive advantage over their peers, and gives their employers an advantage over their competitors.

    The 350,000 customers and partners we’ve already trained on Windows Server 2008 have the inside track on how to deploy and implement the technology that will give them a head start when the product is formally released.

    PressPass: Isn’t on-the-job experience enough to demonstrate one’s expertise?

    Ziob: There’s no question that experience is important. Certification programs are not meant to replace on-the-job experience. But experience in itself doesn't automatically guarantee that someone understands the full breadth of a product’s capability. We insist that all other professionals – doctors, dentists, pilots, architects, etc. – have both experience and a specific credential. Clearly the winning combination is experience plus certification.

    PressPass: If an IT pro is certified on Windows Server 2003, do they really need to get recertified on Windows Server 2008?

    Ziob: Yes. Windows Server 2008 is significantly more advanced than Windows Server 2003, with many new features, such as virtualization and improved support for managing and hosting next-generation web applications and services. IT professionals who have the know-how to manage and implement the shift to this new technology will help their organizations minimize the time it takes to get the server up and running.

    We offer special three-day classes that are designed to help Microsoft Certified Systems Administrators (MCSAs) and Microsoft Certified Systems Engineers (MCSEs) transition their skills from Windows Server 2003 to Windows Server 2008.

    Continue At Source

  • New Windows Server 2008 Certification Information

    Posted by sumeethevans on January 18 2008, 8:38 PM. Posted in Learning.

    We've just added a new set of pages on to help you understand the new certification programme for Windows Server 2008. 

    · Introducing WS2008 certifications · WS2003 to WS008 transition path · Frequently asked questions

    And an old, but useful link - if you register for the "First to Know" Windows Server 2008 Offer, you can save up to 40% on select Windows Server 2008 Exams.  Full terms and conditions can be found on the offer page.

    Continue At Source

  • MCP Special Live Meeting Webcast

    Posted by sumeethevans on October 12 2007, 9:16 PM. Posted in Learning.

    There are some very cool things in the works for MCPs in coming weeks. In the meantime, register for this Live Meeting on October 31 to hear from the MCP team (including Bill Wall, our director of strategy) about Microsoft Certification, new benefits for MCPs, and Q&A about the future of the MCP program. 

    ·  October 31 at 7:30 A.M. Pacific Time (What time is this in my region?)

    ·  October 31 at 5:00 P.M. Pacific Time (What time is this in my region?)

    Frequently Asked Questions

    Trika, WHAT THE H is this meeting all about?!#!@!?

    A few cool things, I think. Really! You should attend and meet George, the chocolate martini-drinking MCP program manager.

    Trika, did you know that October 31 is Halloween in many countries in the Western world and a few other places?

    Yes. I bet your kids would rather attend this Live Meeting than go trick or treating, why don't you ask them.

    May I attend this meeting in costume?

    Yes, you may attend the meeting in costume.

    What should I be for Halloween?

    Ask your spouse. My recommendation is that you go as a little white lamb; a snowy-wooled native of new zealand, where there are "more sheep than people(TM)". Or, go as Mr. T. 

    Trika, did you know that December 5 is Sinterklaas?

    No, not until Erwin told me. MCPs in Holland, I'm very sorry for our scheduling of the WS2008 Live Meeting. But I'm excited for Sinterklaas, which I've learned celebrates "a kind of benevolent old exchanging gifts and making good-natured fun of each other." Can you beat it?

    Continue At Source

  • PerformancePoint Server Beta Exam

    Posted by sumeethevans on October 5 2007, 3:29 AM. Posted in Learning.

    Please share with anyone with a stake in PerformancePoint Server. The beta exam 71-556 (TS: Microsoft Office PerformancePoint Server 2007, Application Development) is open now through October 19 at Prometric. If you don't know much about betas, read this or this first.

    Registration Information

    • You must register at least 24 hours prior to taking the exam.
    • Please use the following promotional code when registering for the exam: TSPPS
    • Receiving this invitation does not guarantee you a seat in the beta; we recommend that you register immediately.
    • To register in North America, please call Prometric: (800) 755-EXAM (800-755-3926)
    • Outside the U.S./Canada, please contact: Prometric:

    The topics covered in this exam: no prep guide available yet

    Continue At Source

  • Get a Second Shot for Free!

    Posted by sumeethevans on September 6 2007, 8:51 AM. Posted in Learning.

    On September 15th, we will be launching Microsoft's Second Shot offer!  Get a free retake on your next Microsoft IT Professional, Developer, or Microsoft Dynamics certification exam.

    This is a limited offer so plan now!  If you register for the Second Shot offer starting September 15, 2007, prior to taking any exam, you will receive a free Second Shot exam if you don't pass on your first try.

    Here's how it works:

    • Step 1: Register for Second Shot on the Microsoft site and receive an exam voucher number.
    • Step 2: Using the voucher number, schedule and pay for your initial exam via Prometrics's web site, call center  or test center locations.  (You must have the voucher number available prior to registering.)
    • Step 3: Take your exam.
    • Step 4: If you fail, register for your free retake exam via Prometric's web site, call center or test center locations using the same voucher number. NOTE:  Please wait one day after the failed exam to register to allow for test results to be entered into the system.

    Subscribe now to Prometric's RSS feed to receive a registration alert  on September 15th.

    Continue At Source

  • WS2008 RTM and your certifications

    Posted by sumeethevans on August 30 2007, 6:24 PM. Posted in Learning.

     You probably already heard the update on WS2008 release to manufacturing (RTM), now scheduled for 1st quarter of 2008 instead of end of year 2007. As a result... 
    1. The transition exams 70-648 and 70-649 will be available on October 29, 2007, now. They were scheduled for September 20, but the changes/slip in technology mean some items on our exams are affected, too. 
    2. If you took the beta for either of these exams (71-648 or 71-649), your result should be available no later than October 29 (or a few weeks before).
    3. The MCTS exams are still scheduled for RTM +30 days; the MCITP exams are still scheduled for RTM +60. Don't know what I'm talking about? Read about the WS2008 certification family.

    Continue At Source

  • Microsoft, HP and OnForce Team to Deliver a Dynamic e-learning and Certification Platform

    Posted by bink on August 21 2007, 3:30 PM. Posted in Learning.

    The new learning solution is designed to help connect business customers with skilled, experienced IT service providers via an innovative online marketplace.

    Microsoft, HP and OnForce have formed a unique collaboration to create a learning and certification solution for OnForce’s community of more than 10,000 IT service providers. The learning solution, which launches this month, is a one-stop resource for OnForce service providers to obtain training and validation on the latest Microsoft technologies. This will help them to meet the demands of Value Added Resellers (VARs) and solution providers who use OnForce to find IT professionals.

    This unique learning solution will speed the process of certification so that OnForce buyers have access to an increasingly robust community of highly-skilled service providers that can successfully implement new technologies, like Microsoft Windows Vista.

    “This exciting and unique collaboration gives OnForce providers easy access to the training and skills validation they need to help customers to be successful with Microsoft technologies,” says Lutz Ziob, general manager of Microsoft Learning.

    The partnership has benefited from the strengths of each company: OnForce brings its large community of skilled technicians, Microsoft adds its industry-recognized content and certifications programs, and HP drives it with a learning experience that contains all the elements in one location for easy access.

    An Innovative Business Model

    Continue At Source
  • New-style Microsoft certification poses challenges

    Posted by sumeethevans on July 22 2007, 7:57 PM. Posted in Learning.

    A raft of changes and a new tiered structure are forcing trainers to adjust their programmesTraining providers and businesses are grappling with Microsoft’s “New Generation of Certification”, which will eventually replace the current MCSEs and MCSAs. Microsoft announced a raft of changes to its certification programme and structure way back in November 2005 but only now is it working its way through the training sector. The so-called “New Generation” features a three-tiered structure of Technology Professional plus Architect-series credentials.Mike Hadley, general manager of corporate training solutions for Avonmore, says people can’t keep up with the pace of change with Microsoft’s qualifications. Instead, firms would still rely on staffer’s knowledge whether certified or not.Continue At Source